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Functional Brain Mapping

 

mappingFunctional brain mapping  is noninvasive measurements of human brain physiology used in diagnostic, prognostic and research worldwide.

 

The available techniques include also fMRI and PET techniques, which are highly informative for brain anatomy assessments and for the understanding of the nature of particular pathological processes.

 

Electroencephalography (EEG) measures the brain electrical activity from the electrodes attached at the surface of the scalp. This activity or “brainwaves” pattern discribe the current state of the cortical excitability. 

 

The electroencephalography (EEG) is the only non expensive, fast and informative technique with high temporal resolutions, which allows to measure precise timing of of basic neural processes.

 

EEG methods are traditionally used in neurology to identify epileptic discharges, brain injuries, and sensory processing.

 

EEG analysis implies a wide range of signal processing techniques for localization of the source of activity.

 


 

brain

 

 

Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) is a digital, computerized processing of the recorded EEG. The multi-channel EEG data processed with signal processing algorithms including filtering, blind source separation, Fourier transformation, wavelet analysis etc.

 

The processed digital data is than statistically analyzed and compared with “normative” database reference values.

The obtained information can be presented in a form of colored “Functional Brain maps”, graphics, tables etc. and can be used by professional to evaluate brain functions and to track and interpret the changes in brain state that can be a result of neurological, psychological or psychiatric conditions.

QEEG describes the dynamic changes that occurs in the brain during cognitive processing and is used to determine the brain areas engaged in particular task.

     


erp

An event-related potential (ERP) is a noninvasive measure of evaluating brain functioning in response to a specific sensorycognitive, or motor event.

 

ERPs are measured with electroencephalography (EEG). The magnetoencephalography (MEG) equivalent of ERP is the ERF, or event-related field.

 

ERPs provide excellent temporal resolution of 1 ms or better.

 

ERP component abnormalities in clinical research have been shown in neurological conditions such as:

 

  • ADHD
  • Dementia
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Head injuries
  • Stroke
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

 


Loreta and sLoreta mapping

loretaLow Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) is the method of high time resolution statistical parametric mapping for tomographic images of electric neuronal activity that is used in functional brain mapping for localization of the activity in the brain.

 

 

 

 

sLORETA provides correct localization of human brain functions with the lowest possible localization error to test point sources.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psychophysiology is the interdisciplinary field that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.

Psychophysiology was introduces at in the 1960s and it has now also includes specialized branches as Social Psychophysiology, Cardiovascular Psychophysiology, Cognitive Psychophysiology, and Cognitive Neuroscience.

 

Some people have difficulty distinguishing a psychophysiologist from a physiological psychologist, two very different perspectives. Psychologists are interested in why we may fear spiders and physiologists may be interested in theinput/output system of the amygdala. A psychophysiologist will attempt to link the two.

 

Psychophysiologists generally study the psychological/physiological link in intact human subjects. While early psychophysiologists almost always examined the impact of psychological states on physiological system responses, since the 1970s, psychophysiologists also frequently study the impact of physiological states and systems on psychological states and processes. It is this perspective of studying the interface of mind and body that makes psychophysiologists most distinct.

 

Historically, most psychophysiologists tended to examine the physiological responses and organ systems innervated by the autonomic nervous system. More recently, psychophysiologists have been equally, or potentially more, interested in the central nervous system, exploring cortical brain potentials such as the many types of event-related potentials (ERPs), brain waves, and utilizing advanced technology such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), MRIPET, MEG, and other neuroimagery techniques.

 

Psychophysiologist look at how exposure to a stressful situation will produce a result in the cardiovascular system such as a change in heart rate (HR), vasodilation/vasoconstriction, myocardial contractility, or stroke volume.

 

Psychophysiology is closely related to the field of Neuroscience and Social neuroscience, which primarily concerns itself with relationships between psychological events and brain responses. Psychophysiology is also related to the medical discipline known as psychosomatics.

 

While psychophysiology was a discipline off the mainstream of psychological and medical science prior to roughly the 1960 and 1970s, more recently, psychophysiology has found itself positioned at the intersection of psychological and medical science, and its popularity and importance have expanded commensurately with the realization of the inter-relatedness of mind and body.